To Live Is Christ


 

 

 

 


Note - For this class the professor did not ask for a paper.  Rather he wanted complete research for a paper.  I began to suspect at this point Fuller was going to be easier than Wheaton.  I had the same class as an undergraduate -- it was significantly harder and more rewarding.

A Brief Study of the Life and Thought of C.I. Scofield

  Thesis

    One of the most influential movements in 20th Century American religious history, or for that matter general history, has been Fundamentalism.  From its beginnings in the late 19th century through its peak in the early decades of this century and now entering into another century, Fundamentalism has shaped and impacted our society in a multitude of ways.  It is of a nature where one appreciates or one despises it, there is not much of a middle ground of opinion to be found.  On account of this great influence it would behoove us to look at one of the foundational thinkers and writers of this movement, C.I. Scofield.  He was, arguably, the single greatest force in the development and dispersion of dispensational thought, and all other aspects which made up Fundamentalism.  It is the goal of this paper, then, to look at Dr. Scofield, examining first his life, then focusing especially on a selection of his own writings so as to gain an understanding of his thought and emphases.  I will, finally, seek to understand his influence, good and bad, on the movement and through this on society as a whole.  If one wants to understand a movement, it is often a great first step first to examine those of whom the movement exalted as leaders, thereby gaining and understanding of those attributes of thought and deed that a movement holds important.  C.I. Scofield was exalted within Fundamentalism as a leader and thinker without rival, so it is him that we shall seek to understand.

Outline

 

I.       Introduction

 

II.     The Life of C.I. Scofield (1843 - 1921)

A.    Birth and Childhood

1.      The youngest of seven children, four girls and three boys.  He was the only surviving son in the family.

2.      Parents were active Episcopalians.

3.      Mother died shortly after his birth, with her dying prayer that her new son would become a preacher.

4.      Moved to Wilson County, Tennessee, where he was raised.

5.      Primarily self-educated

 

B.    Early Adulthood

1.      Civil War Soldier

a.      Enlisted at the beginning of the hostilities in the Confederate Army

b.      Excellent horseman, causing him to be used as an orderly and in the Cavalry

c.      Received the Southern Cross of Honor for valor at the Battle of Antietam

d.      Fought until the end of the war in various capacities, mostly unknown.

2.      Moved to St. Louis in 1866

a.      Married Leotine Cerre, daughter of a prominent French Roman Catholic family

b.      With family help secured a position as a law clerk in a local prestigious firm, began studying for a career in law.

c.      Three Children:  Abigail, Marie, and Guy (died at age two).

3.      Moved to Kansas in 1870

a.      Passed the bar

b.      Elected in Atchinson, KS to State Legislature

c.      Helped convict a crooked state Senator

d.      Appointed in 1873 as U.S. Attorney for the State of Kansas and the Indian Territory by President Grant

 

C.   Conversion

1.      Resigned post as U.S. attorney (time of service varies in sources from seven months to two years) under clouded conditions

2.      Resumed law practice in St.Louis

3.      Wife leaves him in 1879 and returns to Atchinson with Children (they officially divorce in 1883).

4.      Took up drinking in a serious way.

5.      A friend, Thomas McPheeters asked why Scofield was not a Christian.  Scofield replied because no one had asked him to become one.  McPheeters asked and Scofield became a Christian

 

D.   Pastoral activities

1.      Initially, following his conversion, very active in the local YMCA

2.      Organized and pastored the Hyde Park Congregational Church

3.      Asked to assume pastorate of the failing First Congregational Church of Dallas in 1882.  He stayed until 1895.

4.      Married Hettie Van Wark in 1884, a member of his church.  They had one child – Noel Paul.

5.      In 1887 became superintendent of the American Home Missionary Society for the states of Louisiana and Texas. 

6.      Began Central American Mission in 1890.

7.      Invited by Dwight L. Moody to pastor the Trinitarian Congregational Church in East Northfield, MA, where he stayed for seven years.

8.      Took up a variety of tasks as a leader in schools, bible-study development, and in conference work.

9.      Returned to First Congregational Church until 1907.

 

E.    Writing of the Scofield Reference Bible

1.      The idea germinated early in his ministry in Dallas

2.      In 1901 he outlined his plan at the Seafield Bible Conference

3.      Project was begun in 1902

4.      In 1907, Scofield left pastorate to pursue this full-time

5.      Published in 1909, and was an instant success.

6.      Later elected to membership in the Societe Academique d’Histoire Internationale in France for this work.

 

F.    Later Years and Death

1.      In 1911, was appointed chairman of the committee for the revision of the King James Version (KJV) which was sponsored by the Oxford University Press.

2.      In 1914 helped found the Philadelphia  Bible Institute (PBI), as was President until 1918.

3.      Discipled Lewis Chafer at PBI, who later helped found Dallas Theological Seminary.

4.      Primarily wrote and lectured at various conferences and other venues following the publication of the SRB.

5.      Died in 1921 of cardiovascular renal disease.

 

III.  The Writings of C.I. Scofield

A.    General Thoughts on the Writings

1.      Primarily Pastoral in nature, meant for a general audience.

2.      Popular in all ranges of education for readability and succinctness.

3.      Very Grounded in and focused on Scripture.

4.      His relationship with Oxford University Press

This very well-respected name published the SRB. (In addition it also published the earliest biography of Scofield by Trumble, and published Marsden’s Fundamentalism and American Culture, making this the major publisher behind Fundamentalist thought and study.  An additional note of some interest and comparison can be made that Canfield’s biography which attacks the SRB as unscholarly, was originally self-published. 

 

B.  Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth

1.      Brief overview of purpose and style

2.      Definition and examination of Dispensational thought

a.      Defined as a period of time during which man is tested in respect of obedience to some specific revelation of the will of God.

b.      Seven Dispensations

i.        innocency

ii.      conscience

iii.     human government

iv.     promise

v.       law

vi.     grace

vii.    kingdom

 

C.   Plain Papers on the Holy Spirit

1.      Brief overview of purpose and style

2.      Scofield’s Doctrine of the Holy Spirit

a.      As a Divine Person

b.      Before and up to Pentecost

c.      Since Pentecost

d.      The necessity of the Spirit in modern Christians

 

D.   Scofield Reference Bible

1.      Discussion of its importance and prevalence in Fundamentalist life and thought.

a.      Success in numbers published and sold (over ten million copies).

b.      Success in influencing generations of Fundamentalists.

  2.  Purpose, structure, and form

c.      Intended to “facilitate the study and intelligent use of the Bible”  (SRB, iii)

d.      Originally used the KJV, mainly due to its popularity rather than a strict view that it is the only real version of Scripture.  There was a willingness to amend passages which were commonly thought by scholars to be mistranslations. 

e.      Was not intended to be a commentary, but rather intended  to not exceed similar Bibles with helps.

f.        The notes meant to aid readers in understanding difficult concepts.  By:

i.        Book introductions

ii.      A series of references to other related texts.

iii.     Definitions of theologically significant words (i.e. atonement, sin, etc.)

iv.     Divisions of Scripture are noted, as well as a discussion of dispensational divisions is taken up.

v.       Prophecies are noted as to prior or future fulfillment.

vi.     Thoughts on typology, i.e. the light of Genesis 1:4 is a type of Christ.

vii.    Discussion of themes

viii.   Pronunciation helps.

 

 

E.    Addresses On Prophecy

1.      Prophecy as a main point of Fundamentalism

2.      The Church in Prophecy

3.      Israel’s role

4.      The Messiah

5.      Future things

 

F.  In Many Pulpits

1.      Brief overview of content

2.      Examination of the preaching style of Scofield

a.      Succinct and easily understood.

b.      Reliance on Scripture.

c.      Variety of topics.

         

V.  The Influence of C.I. Scofield

A.    Influence Within Fundamentalism

1.      As a thinker.

a.      Expounded and contributed to the major tenets of Fundamentalist belief.

b.      Contributor to The Fundamentals

c.      Editor, publisher, and committee chairman

d.      Teacher and Mentor to a great number of influential Fundamentalist leaders

2.  As a Popularizer.

a.   Bridge between dry scholarship and popular thought.

b.      Focus on equipping all believers to understand and read the Bible

3.      Continuing Influence

a.      Continued popularity and expansion of the SRB.

b.      Continued influence of his thought in Fundamentalist schools and seminaries (i.e. Dallas Theological Seminary).

 

B.    Influence Outside Fundamentalism

1.      Or – Influence outside of Fundamentalism?

2.      As a major force to be dealt with by non-Fundamentalist Christians.

3.      Global impact.

 

C.   His followers

1.      A look at the Trumbull biography.

2.      A look at the Gaebelein article.

3.      Opinions on the man

a.      a man of prayer

b.      a man of faith

c.      a man of great intelligence and learning

d.      a man with great communication skills

 4.  Views on his Bible and notes.

a.  Doctrinally, they were comments and helps.

b.  Practically, they were divine additions.

 

D.  His critics

1.      A look at the Canfield biography

2.      Main points of criticism by Canfield and others:

a.      Scofield’s personal problems and motives

b.      Scofield’s lack of scholarly ability and training

c.      Scofield’s theological errors

d.      Scofield’s arrogance and heresy in adding to Scripture

 

VI.  Conclusion

    

Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

The best way to understand a person’s thoughts and motives is to read that person’s own writings.  While an autobiography does not exist, it is possible to gain an understanding of how Scofield wrote and taught, and to get a grasp of his thought and emphases through what he did write. 

 

Scofield, C.I.  Addresses on Prophecy.  Philadelphia:  Philadelphia School of the Bible, Inc.,

1910.

-Formulates and expounds upon Scofield’s view of Prophecy within the Bible.  Prophecy is a key part of understanding Fundamentalism, and a look at Scofield’s expression of the thought is vital.

 

--In Many Pulpits,  Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1966.

-A selection of sermons and essays by Scofield on a variety of topics.  This is helpful in understanding Scofield’s style of communication, an important aspect of his Pastoral life and career.  This is also a expounding of general doctrine in an easy to understand manner.

 

--Plain Papers on the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit.  New York:  Fleming H. Revell Company: 

1899.

-A brief book on Scofield’s doctrine of the Holy Spirit.  While not a major often thought of as a major topic within Fundamentalist thought, it is interesting to compare this doctrine with the other great movement of the early 20th century (and one which is even stronger today), Pentecostalism.

 

--Prophecy Made Plain.  New York:  Gospel Publishing House, 1914.

-A slightly different version of Addresses on Prophecy meant for a European audience.  While not particularly different, it is interesting to note the fact that versions were published for a global audience, and that Scofield was not limited to American influence.

 

     --Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth.  Findlay, OH:  Dunham Publishing Company, 1955.

-Scofield’s first major work, in which he expounds on the beliefs of Dispensationalism.  Invaluable in studying Scofield’s basic thought on this doctrine, and helpful in its showing us  his earliest thought and writing.

 

--Things Old and New. Compiled and edited by A.C. Gaebelein.  New York:  Our Hope

   Publications,1920

-A collection of essays on the Old and New Testament.  This book gives us a greater understanding of Scofield’s views on particular books and passages, which are hinted at in his study notes of the following.

 

Scofield, C.I., editor.  The Scofield Reference Bible (SRB).  New York:  Oxford University Press,

1945.

-Scofield’s best known work, both in reputation and in numbers published and sold.  Became the authoritative version of Holy Scripture for generations of Fundamentalists, with versions still being sold today in large numbers.  It was through this version that Scofield was able to widely disseminate Dispensational thought, and other uniquely, and not-so-uniquely, Fundamentalist views on Scripture.  It is usually either hated or adored. 

 

 

 

Secondary Sources

These include various biographies and personal sketches of C.I. Scofield, as well as general works about the movement and thought of Fundamentalism. 

 

Canfield, Joseph.  The Incredible Scofield and His Book.  Vallecito, CA:  Ross House Books,

1988.

-“A masterpiece of vituperative writing” (Crutchfield, 378).  This is an overview of the life of Scofield, with an emphasis on the development of the SRB.  There is extensive research, but the presupposition of major dislike for Scofield and his book resonate throughout.  A very useful tool, but one must be aware of the very negative perspective which is present from beginning to end.

 

Chafer, Lewis Sperry,  “Dr. C.I. Scofield.”  Bibliotheca Sacra 100 (January 1943):  4-6.

-A brief biographical sketch by a pupil and colleague of Dr. Scofield.  It is brief, but very valuable in its personal statements about Scofield by someone who knew him well.  The comments concerning Scofield’s conversion are very worthwhile.

 

---  “The Scofield Bible.”  Bibliotheca Sacra 109 (April 1952): 97-99.

-A brief refutation of the lack of scholarly worth of the SRB.  The appeal is made to the fact that it was published by Oxford University Press, and to be published required an unanimous vote of more than twenty college Presidents, whose academic credentials could not be argued.

 

Cox, William E.  An Examination of Dispensationalism.  Philadelphia:  Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing  Co., 1963. 

-An examination of the formulation of Dispensational theology by one who was taught in, and then rejected, this style of thought.  While not scathing in its attack, there is a very strong and prevalent wish to persuade interested Christians that this is a error filled doctrine which borders on heresy.   This is important in understanding the variety and reasons of disagreement with Scofield’s thought.

 

Gaebelein, Arno C. The History of the Scofield Reference Bible.  New York:  Our Hope

Publications, 1943.

-An enthusiastic and unabashed Apology for both Scofield and the SRB, written in response to various critics of both.  This is an excellent source of information, though very biased, as well as important in understanding the scope and magnitude of Scofield and his thinking upon Fundamentalist thought throughout this century. 

--- “The Story of the Scofield Reference Bible”,  Moody Monthly 43(October

1942):  65-66, 97; (November 1942): 128-129, 135; (December 1942):  202-3, 233; (January

1943):  277-79;  (February 1943):   343-45; (March 1943):  400-01, 419.

     -A slightly different serialized version of the above. 

 

Kraus, C. Norman.  Dispensationalism in America:  Its Rise and Development.  Richmond:  John

Knox Press, 1958.

-An examination of dispensationalism with an emphasis on the historical foundations of the movement.  While the author is very much not within the movement himself, the book is not an “attempt to refute dispensationalism, but rather to understand it” (p. 19).  It is valuable in its broad and fair discussion of the movement as a whole and, especially, Scofield’s own role.

 

Marsden, George M.,  Fundamentalism and American Culture.  New York:  Oxford University

     Press, 1980.

-The definitive book on the Fundamentalist movement.  Without equal in its discussion of the rise, development, influence, and thought of Fundamentalism.  While its discussion of Scofield is rather brief, this is an important book in placing and understanding him within his historical situation.

 

Trumbull, Charles, The Life Story of C.I. Scofield.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1920.

-More than a tribute than a biography, this early, and brief, study of the life of C.I. Scofield is still a very valuable resource in gaining an understanding of who Scofield was.

Dictionary Articles

Dictionary articles are an important resource in gaining a quick glimpse of the person studied, as well as  valuable in providing bibliographic direction.  The various articles vary in length, and each has a particular angle or piece of information which is valuable.

 

Bowde, Henry Warner.  Dictionary of American Religious Biography.  New York:  Greenwood, 1977.

-A brief article, it is valuable in its biographical details, and especially because of the timeline provided.  Also, it has some excellent insights concerning his thought on the Bible.

 

Crutchfield, Larry V. Twentieth Century Shapers of American Popular Religion.  Charles Lippy,

ed.  New York:  Greenwood, 1989.

-The best of the articles, this longer sketch gives an overview of the life and thought, with the addition of appraising Scofield’s work and looking at his critics.  Contains an overview of his writings and an excellent bibliography.

 

Fackler, Mark  “Scofield, Cyrus Ingerson”, Who’s Who in Christian History.  J.D. Douglas and Philip Comfort, eds.  Wheaton:  Tyndale House, 1992.

          -A very brief article, with some valuable information on his pre-conversion career.

 

Hannah, J.  “Scofield, Cyrus Ingerson (1843 - 1921)”  Dictionary of Christianity in America. 

Daniel Reid, ed.  Downers Grove:  IVP, 1990.

-A brief, but very valuable and succinct view of Scofield.  An excellent quick resource for biographical details.

 

 
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